Jordan Journal of Civil Engineering

Paper Detail

Composting of Organic Waste : A Sustainable Alternative Solution for Solid Waste Management in Jordan

Volume 15, No. 3, 2021
Received: 2021/06/29, Accepted:


Ahmad R. Al-Nawaiseh; Salah H. Aljbour; Husam Al-Hamaiedeh; Tayel El-Hasan; Safwat Hemidat;


Composting is an economical, sustainable and environmentally benign alternative option for solid waste management. In this study, organic wastes generated at Al-Karak Governorate/ Jordan were used as substrates for compost production. Three windrow piles containing different proportions of organic wastes (fruits, vegetables, garden waste, poultry and sheep manure) were initiated for compost production. Plant residues and sawdust were added and mixed with the substrates and used as bulking agents to improve aeration and provide the required carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio needed for efficient decomposition of organic matter. Continuous monitoring of the chemical, biological and physical properties of composted matter was conducted and the end product quality was assessed against the German standard. The physico-chemical parameters examined demonstrated that the biological conditions were sufficiently developed. The results of the monitored experimental process showed overall decreasing profiles versus composting time for moisture content, organic carbon, C/N ratio and pile volume, as well as overall increasing profiles for electrical conductivity, pH, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium and bulk density. Furthermore, compost respiration (AT4) in the samples varied from 2.57 to 5.43 mg O2/g DM, indicating that all the compost samples are stable and can be rated as class V end product.


Biological treatment, Bio-waste, Manure, Compost, German standard, End-product quality, Jordan.