Jordan Journal of Civil Engineering

Paper Detail

Passive Earth Pressure of Normally and Over-consolidated Cohesionless Soil Retaining Horizontal and Inclined Backfills Overlaying Natural Deposit

Volume 15, No. 3, 2021
Received: 2021/06/29, Accepted:


Mousa Bani Baker; Mohamad Abdel-Rahman; Adel Hanna; Batool Al-Shorman;


Passive earth pressures play an important role in soil-structure interaction problems. They provide stabilizing forces for anchor blocks, laterally loaded pile foundations and retaining walls. Quite often, passive earth pressures are used to resist lateral movement of structures. The passive earth pressure behind retaining walls depends on the strength of the backfill material, the wall-soil frictional angle and the stress history of the soil. The stress history, which is represented by the so-called overconsolidation ratio (OCR), is a major governing parameter in the determination of passive earth pressure on the wall. The present paper presents a theoretical model to predict the coefficient of passive earth pressure for the case of normally consolidated or over-consolidated cohesionless backfill overlaying deep deposit. The theory utilizes the method of slices and the limit equilibrium method of analysis. Design theory, design charts and design examples are presented. Coefficients of passive earth pressure as deduced by the present study and Yong and Qian (2000) method were very close for example at low friction angles, such as of 10° and p  of 10°. The present study estimates Kp at 1.67, while it was estimated by Yong and Qian to be 1.66. At higher values of friction as  of 30º and p  of 15°, the present study estimates Kp at 4.29, while it was estimated by Yong and Qian to be 4.61.


Passive earth pressure, Over-consolidated cohesionless soil, Inclined backfill, Deep deposit.