Jordan Journal of Civil Engineering

Paper Detail

A Review on the Development and Applications of Single-layer Concrete Armour Units in the Design of Rubble Mound Breakwaters

Volume 12, No. 1, 2018
Received: 2017/12/03, Accepted:


M. Salauddin;


Concrete armour units can be applied to protect new reclamations, beaches or coastal structures, like rubble mound breakwaters. The design systems of concrete armour layers for breakwaters can be divided into singlelayer systems and double-layer systems. In the design of rubble mound breakwaters, at present, single-layer systems using concrete armour units have become a more common practice compared to conventional twolayer systems. There are several types of artificial armour units which can be applied as single-layer armour systems. These all have different shapes and properties and improvement keeps going on by trying to develop new more effective ones. Single-layer armour system is mostly applied because of its properties, like high interlocking, high hydraulic stability of the structure, reduction of concrete use and decrease of the construction period. However, for the application of monolayer systems, different factors, like placement pattern, allowable levels of damage, additional safety for repair works and failure systems of armour layer should be treated with care. This review study highlights the development and use of single-layer concrete armour units in the design of rubble mound breakwaters. Furthermore, various important factors that need to be considered in the design of a single-layer armour are discussed in this paper.


Concrete armour unit, Rubble mound breakwater, Single-layer system, Hydraulic stability, Structural strength