Jordan Journal of Civil Engineering

Paper Detail

Utilization of Lightweight Tetrapod Aggregate Produced from a High Calcium Fly Ash in Civil Engineering Applications

Volume 1, No. 2, 2007
Received: 2008/08/26, Accepted:


Khaled Z. Ramadan; Adli Al Balbissi;


Due to the increasing volumes of fly ash production in some countries that depend on coal for running their thermal power plants, new utilization areas must be found. One of these areas is to utilize large volume applications such as the production of special shape aggregate (tetrapod) to be used in different geotechnical applications and highway construction. This is beneficial in solving the disposal problem of fly ash as well as making economical use of a mineral resource. To achieve these goals, fly ash was utilized in producing tetrapod shape lightweight aggregate by pressing into a specially designed mold. Pre to the production of tetrapods, regular lightweight fly ash aggregates were produced, cured and tested. Test results on the regular lightweight fly ash aggregates were implemented in the production of tetrapods. Optimization of lime content showed that five per cent by weight lime addition to fly ash had the best performance. Tests were conducted on the cured tetrapods in order to determine their mechanical and physical properties. Absorption and other properties were improved by surface treatment with water glass and heating.


Fly Ash, Lightweight Aggregate, Tetrapod, Lime, Durability, Water Glass, Mechanical Properties.