Jordan Journal of Civil Engineering

Effect of Steel Slag As Fine and Coarse Aggregate on Pore Structure and Freeze-thaw Resistance of High-strength Concrete


Raed Abendeh; Rana Alhorani; Hesham Ahmad; Mousa Bani Baker;


Steel slag usage in concrete can be a promising and sustainable approach to reduce natural resources shortages, landfill costs and potential pollution. In this work, the behavior of concrete prepared with varying replacements of recycled Steel Slag Aggregate (SSA) of natural aggregate ranging from 0% to 75% was investigated. Concrete behavior was evaluated using different tests; namely, compressive and flexural strengths, mass loss, water absorption, permeability and freezing/thawing (F/T) effect. The incorporation of SSA into concrete improved the strength and durability of mixtures prepared with high replacement ratios of SSA. The compressive strength was increased at about 12% for the 75% replacement ratio of fine aggregate compared to the control specimens, while concrete containing SSA as coarse aggregate showed the highest compressive strength at about 49.2 MPa. The flexural strength of the present mixtures was increased by about 13% and 15% for concrete with substitutions of 75% SSA of fine and coarse aggregate, respectively. The replacement of SSA for natural coarse aggregate at 75% was fundamental in enhancing the resistance to F/T noticeably as indicated by ultrasonic pulse velocity measurements.


Steel slag aggregate, Compressive strength, Flexural strength, Concrete permeability, Freeze-thaw action, Ultrasound pulse velocity