Jordan Journal of Civil Engineering

Clay Mineralogy of the Soils above Basalt from Azraq Area , Jordan


Zayed Al-Hawari; Ibrahim A. Bany Yaseen;


Twelve clay samples were taken from three pits below the basaltic loose veneer rubble down to the basaltic bedrock in order to discuss the origin of the clay minerals in relation to the origin of the soil. The non-clay minerals present are: quartz, calcite and feldspar which are abundant in all soil samples. The basaltic bedrock as well as the loose fragments are made up of fresh basalt. There is a sharp contact between both the basalt fragments and the soil. The clay minerals are: palygorskite, kaolinite and a mixed-layer of illite/smectite. These were observed in the distribution of the clay minerals, and no transitional phases were observed along the pits. The clay minerals were formed by the effect of wind-blowing /detrital and transported. Consequently, soil accumulation north of Azraq Al-Druze seems to be wind blown and not due to basalt alterations.


Clay minerals, Basaltic soil, Wind blowing, Azraq Area, Jordan.