Jordan Journal of Civil Engineering

Dissolution of Gypseous Rocks under Different Circumstances


Orabi Al-Rawi; Shehdeh Ghannam; Hamid R. Al-Ani;


The influence of temperature, flow velocity, gypsum content, salinity of solvent and hole diameter on the amount and rate of dissolution of gypseous rock samples was investigated. The rock samples were obtained from the proposed Al-Fat’ha dam site located approximately 280km to the north of Baghdad city. The gypsum content for these samples ranged from 16% to 90%. Dissolution tests were carried out with the aid of a special system that was modified and manufactured to allow passing water at different speeds through a drilled hole along the center of the rock samples. The amount of dissolution of gypsum was determined under different conditions. The results showed that the amount and rate of gypsum dissolution increased with increasing the temperature of the test. The effect was more pronounced on rock samples with low gypsum content. Increasing the flow velocity also increases the amount and rate of gypsum dissolution. With this parameter, the effect of gypsum content was marginal. Increasing the salinity of the solvent (using low percentages of NaCl additives) has a great influence on the amount and rate of gypsum dissolution, and further increase in the salinity exhibited a marginal increase in the amount of dissolution when compared with the lower salinity concentration. The Tigris river water (as a natural solvent) exhibited a negligible effect on the amount and rate of gypsum dissolution. Increasing the diameter of the hole along the center of the sample increases the inside area exposed to water and hence generates more dissolution.


Gypsum dissolution, Gypseous rocks, Lower fars formation, Temperature, Salinity of solvent, Flow velocity, Gypsum content